1. 前置修饰语的停顿形式化描述：M, S V O.
例句1(加逗号) In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such level that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls.
例句2(不加逗号) In the 1960’s long-term studies of primate behavior often used as subjects tamaris.
2. 插入语形式化描述：S, ,V O.
例句1 Plants are more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars.
例句2 Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer.
3. 句尾的修饰语形式化描述：S V O, M.
例句 Dr.Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how the body canconstantly change its genes to fashion a seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically at an invading microbe or foreign substance.
4. 并列句或主从复合句子句之间的停顿形式化描述：S V, and S V.
例句1(加逗号) Although a surge in retail sales has raised hopes that a recovery is finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last.
例句2 (不加逗号) If one arm is lost it is quickly replaced.
5. 三者平行形式化描述：A, B, and C
例句1 The report recommended that the hospital eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive services, and use space in other hospitals.
例句2 Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are self-confident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent.
6. 特殊的两者平行形式化描述：A, and B
例句 Motion picture industry representatives said that there were about a million copies of Hollywood movies available online, and that they expected piracy to increaseas high-speed Internet connections became more widely available.
7. 递进解释形式化描述：S V O, M1, M2.
例句 Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D.69 and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle.
8. 省市在句中形式化描述：S 介词C, P, V O.
例句 The Glass House Mountains in Queensland, Australia, were sighted in 1770 by the English navigator Captain James Cook.
9. 两个形容词修饰名词形式化描述：M, M N.
例句 In many cases they change direction toward the east before dissipating over the colder, more northerly waters or overland.