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GMAT阅读中的熟词新意

2017-11-08 15:57

来源:新东方上海学校

作者:

  GMAT考试中遇见的“qualify”这个词大家应该不陌生,第一个映入脑海的意思是“使…合格”,名词是qualification,表示合格,学历,资历。那我们先看在OG阅读中考察的是否是这个意思。

  OG第五篇文章423题中

  Which of the following statements best describes the function of the last sentence of the passage?

  (A) It provides evidence tending to undermine the viewpoint of the scholars mentioned in line 5.

  (B) It resolves a conflict over the role of banks summarized in the first paragraph.

  (C) It clarifies some of the reasons state legislatures began granting more bank charters.

  (D) It qualifies a claim made earlier in the passage about the impact of banks on the American economy in the early nineteenth century.

  (E) It supports a claim made earlier in the passage about how the expansion of credit affected the economy.

  该题为功能目的题,那我们回文章寻找最后一句话,分析文章最后一句话和前文的关系。

  The exception, such historians argue, was in the South; here, the overwhelmingly agrarian nature of the economy generated outright opposition to banks, which were seen as monopolistic institutions controlled by an elite group of planters.

  原文中最后一句话开始用了“exception”,说明这里提出一个例外,和前文不一致的信息。一一对比选项,发现能够表示不一致的只有A选项的“undermine”这个词,但是答案却是D选项。

  是不是答案错了呢?

  这取决于“qualify”这个单词的意思。在这里,“qualify”不是合格的意思,而是“modify, limit”的意思,表示对前文说法的调整,限定。可以参考Merriam-Webster韦氏字典中及物动词的第四个意思“to limit or modify the meaning of (as a noun)” 。“qualify”如果做及物动词,后跟“statement/claim/assertion”表示的限定,调整的意思。在做不及物动词,后跟介词for的时候,表达的是使合格的意思。我们来看韦氏字典给出的例句:His experience qualifies him for the job.这时候“qualify”就是使…合格的意思。

  那是不是只要在GMAT中看到“qualify”,都是“modify”和“limit”的意思呢?

  一,GWD-TN-2 Q23

  Which of the following best describes the function of the first sentence of the second paragraph of the passage?

  A. To answer a question posed in the first sentence of the passage about why firms adopt particular strategic missions

  B. To refute an argument made in the first paragraph about how top management decision-making affects whether firms will adhere to their strategic plans

  C. To provide evidence supporting a theory introduced in the first paragraph about what makes firms adhere to or deviate from their strategic plants

  D. To qualify an assertion made in the preceding sentence about how top management decision-making affects the likelihood that firms will adhere to their strategic plans

  E. To explain a distinction relied on in the second paragraph (lines 17-68) regarding two different kinds of strategic missions

  这里D选项qualify后跟assertion,是限定的意思。

  二,Prep 08语法笔记 201题

  The three women, liberal activists who strongly support legislation in favor of civil rights and environmental protection, have consistently received labor's unqualifying support.

  A. have consistently received labor's unqualifying support

  B. are consistently receiving the unqualifying support of labor

  C. have consistently received the unqualified support of labor

  D. receive consistent and unqualified support by labor

  E. are receiving consistent and unqualified support by labor

  这里是形容词,表示的是limited or unmodified,反义词是unqualified,后跟support,表示的是完全支持,并不是不合格的支持。

  拓展与延伸:审计公司在给上市公司审计年报时,审计人员会在批注中说明是否是unqualifiedsupport年报的内容。

  三,OG 逻辑部分585 题

  This reasoning assumes that…, and that the two other Spensers in the Merchant Tailor’s Guild were not poor enough for their children to qualify for reduced fees.

  这里的qualify是不及物动词,是合格的意思。

  总结:qualify在OG中的意思既有限定,也有使合格,具体需要看它是及物动词,形容词,也要结合句意。

  作者简介:陶静, 亚洲英语辩论赛亚军, GMAT740, 托福111, 雅思8分,GMAT全科, 托福全科。

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