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如何捕捉GMAT阅读作者观点

2017-08-17 10:37

来源:新东方北京学校

作者:闫晨晨

  GMAT阅读中,识别文章中作者的观点或者态度会对解题有着举足轻重的影响。我们拿两个简单的题目来进行一个比较:

  (下面的题目请大家做出True/False 的判断)

  V1

  Passage: 小明认为,只要吃苹果就可以长高。

  但是,小红觉得其实吃苹果并不能帮助长高。

  Q: The primary purpose of the passage is to

  Challenge a view ( )

  答案:False

  V2

  Passage:小明认为,只要吃苹果就可以长高。

  但是,最近研究揭露出吃苹果其实无法帮助长高。

  Q: The primary purpose of the passage is to

  Challenge a view ( )

  答案:True

  这两个版本的文章内容几乎一样,但是题目答案却大相径庭。原因在于题目在问文章的主要目的,其实就是作者的主要目的;而V1中是小明和小红两者观点的争论,作者没有发表自己的看法,所以不能说这篇文章的主要目的是为了去挑战某个观点。因此,我们会发现,作者观点的识别会对我们解题产生很深远的意义。所以,同学们之后在理解文章时要注意观点的出现,以及对观点视角的识别与判定。

  下面,我们来看一篇阅读题目:

  (这是一篇易错文章,同学们可以先自己尝试,再看解析)

  Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica – the oldest known bird – appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods – the closest known relatives of birds – date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit. Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed. Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.

  1.The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds

  B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds

  C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds

  D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

  E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

  2.In the context of the passage, the phrase “fossils of a predicted kind”(line 16) most likely refers to which of the following?

  A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles

  B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils

  C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years

  D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs

  E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

  3.Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?

  A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.

  B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs’ lungs.

  C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.

  D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.

  E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

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